API RP 571 Test

1. __________ is a change in the microstructure of certain carbon steels and 0.5 Mo steels after long term operation in the 800º F to 1100º F range. A. Graphitization B. Softening C. Temper Embrittlement D. Creep 2. What structure is 304 stainless steel? A. Martensitic B. Austenitic C. Duplex D. Ferritic 3. _________ is the result of cyclic stress caused by variations in temperature. A. Creep B. Thermal Fatigue C. Cyclic Cracking D. Stress Corrosion Cracking 4. General or localized corrosion of carbon steels and other metals caused by dissolved salts, gases, organic compounds or microbiological activities is called ________. A. Flue Gas Corrosion B. Atmospheric Corrosion C. Cooling Water Corrosion D. None of the Above E. All of the Above 5. 5. What structure is 410 stainless steel? A. Martensitic B. Austenitic C. Duplex D. Ferritic

6. The sudden rapid fracture under stress (residual or applied) where the material exhibits little or no evidence of ductility or plastic deformation is called _________. A. 885º F Embrittlement B. Temper Embrittlement C. Stress Corrosion Cracking D. Brittle Fracture 7. What structure is 409 stainless steel? A. Martensitic B. Austenitic C. Duplex D. Ferritic 8. Low alloy steels contain a maximum of _______ chrome. A. 5% B. 6% C. 7.5% D. 9% 9. Which of the following can be affected by 885º F Embrittlement? A. 410 SS B. 430 SS C. 308 SS D. Alloy 2205 E. A, B and D 10. For 5Cr-0.5Mo, what is the threshold temperature for creep? A. 500º F B. 800º F C. 600º F D. 700º F 11. ________ has been a major problem on coke drum shells. A. Thermal fatigue B. Stress cracking C. Erosion D. Temper embrittlement

12. Thermal fatigue cracks propagate ________ to the stress and are usually dagger shaped, transgranular and oxide-filled. A. Axial B. Diagonal C. Transverse D. Angular 13. Inspection for wet H2S damage generally focuses on _____ and ______. A. Weld seams B. Nozzles C. Trays D. Down comers E. A and B 14. ________ is a form of erosion caused by the formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny vapor bubbles. A. Condensate corrosion B. Cavitation C. Dew-Point corrosion D. Atmospheric corrosion 15. With CUI, corrosion rates __________ with increasing metal temperatures up to the point where the water evaporates quickly. A. Decrease B. Increase C. Stay the same D. None of the above 16. Which of the following metals is the most anodic? A. Zinc B. Carbon Steel C. Nickel D. Monel 17. Cracking of dissimilar weld metals occurs on the _________ side of a weld between an austenitic and a Ferritic material operating at high temperatures. A. Austenitic B. Ferritic C. Anodic D. Cathodic

18. Soil to Air interface areas are usually more susceptible to corrosion than the rest of the structure because of ___________ and __________ availability. A. Moisture B. Bacteria C. Oxygen D. B and C E. A and C 19. Carburization can be confirmed by substantial increases in _______ and loss of __________. A. Hardness B. Tensile Strength C. Ductility D. A and B E. A and C 20. Liquid metal embrittlement can occur if 300 Series SS comes in contact with molten _______. A. Copper B. Mercury C. Zinc D. Lead 21. Cracks that are typically straight, non-branching, and devoid of any associated plastic deformation are likely associated with which type of failure? A. Stress corrosion cracking B. Brittle fracture C. Thermal fatigue D. Temper embrittlement 22. At high temperatures, metal components can slowly and continuously deform under load below the yield strength. This time dependent deformation of stressed components is known as _______? A. Creep B. Ductility C. Softening D. Hardening

A. SOHIC D. Decreasing. Thermal fatigue C. ductility and/or creep resistance. ≥20% C. A. __________ temperatures ________ the susceptibility for cracking. Increases B. Embrittlement B. Permanent deformation occurring at relatively low stress levels as a result of localized overheating is called ________. HIC C. Brittle fracture B. Graphitization D. MIC B. _____________ usually occurs when a colder liquid contacts a warmer metal surface. Increasing. Decreases D. Stress cracking B. Thermal shock D. None of the above 28.23. Increasing. Brittle fracture C. Stress rupture 24. A. A. Carburization C. Increases C. A. Eliminates . With chloride stress corrosion cracking. _________ is a change in the microstructure of certain carbon steels and 0. A. ≥12% 26. ≥10% D.5Mo steels after long-term operation in the 800º F to 1100º F range that may cause a loss in strength. Nickel based alloys usually contain ________ nickel. Temper embrittlement D. ≥30% B. Decreasing. __________ is usually found in aqueous environments or services where water is sometimes or always present. especially where stagnant or low-flow conditions allow the growth of microorganisms. Stress rupture 25. Sensitization 27.

Have high-applied stress 32. A. reduces 31. Hydrogen B. Brown D. More . White 33. Carbonate stress corrosion cracking usually occurs at welds or cold worked areas that __________. Nitriding is usually confined to the surface of most components and will have a dull. the material will exhibit very hard surface hardness. Have been stressed relieved B. Carbon steel is susceptible to SCC when used in ___________ service. Decreasing increases D. Large. A.29. Less D. High temperature D. A ________ grain size results in _______ ductile heat affected zones. A. Ammonia C. Gray B. Amine cracking has been reported down to ambient temperatures with some amines. Black C. Have not been stressed relieved C. High pressure 34. Increasing increases B. The grain size has an important influence on the high temperature ductility and on the reheat cracking susceptibility. Large. SCC B. In more advanced stages. __________ temperatures and stress levels _______ the likelihood and severity of cracking. Cracking can be very sudden and brittle in nature. Increasing. A. A. Have high residual stress D. AET D. SOHIC 30. Small. Increasing. more B. A. LME C. decreases C. Less C. making the material more susceptible to reheat cracking. ______ appearance. Small. __________ is a form of cracking that results when certain molten metals come in contact with specific alloys.

A. corrosion 37. Because of its appearance. The result is a through thickness crack that is perpendicular to the surface and is driven by high levels of stress. decreases C. A. A. corrosion D. this type of graphitization is called________. Decreases. Creep B. Sulfuric SCC D. Temperature. Temperature. Amine stress corrosion cracking is a term applied to the cracking of steels under the combined actions of ________ and __________ in aqueous alkanolamine systems used to remove/absorb H²S and/or CO² and their mixtures from various gas and liquid hydrocarbon streams. A. decreases D. At a given pressure. Pressure. None of the above 39. MIC B. Weld heat affected zone graphitization is most frequently found in the heataffected zone adjacent to welds in a narrow band. Brittle fracture D. A. Equipment that is temper embrittled may be susceptible to _______ during start-up and shutdown. In multi-pass welded butt joints.35. SOHIC C. corresponding to the low temperature edge of the heat affected zone. Decreases. Half-moon B. stress C. Radii D. None of the above 38. Increases. Eyebrow C. increases B. Stress fatigue 36. pressure B. increases . Thermal fatigue C. ______ is similar to HIC but is a potentially more damaging form of cracking which appears as arrays of cracks stacked on top of each other. these zones overlap each other covering the entire cross section. the H²S concentration in the sour water _________ as temperature _________. Tensile stress. Increases.

Silicon B. not hydrogen gas from the process stream. 980 42. Corrosion C. Hydrogen blisters may form as surface bulges on the ID. Austenetic 41. SOHIC D. 574 B. A. A. A. the carbide phases in certain carbon steels are unstable and may decompose into _______. A. Blistering occurs from hydrogen generated by ______. Low creep ductility is __________ severe in high tensile strength materials and welds. This decomposition is known as graphitization. Usually D. At elevated temperature. Less C. 571 D. Graphite nodules C. PWHT B. Carbon dust D. _________ is most likely found in hard weld and heat-affected zones and in high strength components. In order for PASCC to occur the material must be ______. More B. H²S B. flange faces. Graphite dust 45. Hydriding D. Sensitized D. Which API RP recommends programs to monitor small-bore piping. 751 C. A. Not 43. blistering and HIC/SOHIC in HF alky units? A. Blistering 44. Non-PWHT C. the OD on within the wall thickness of a pipe or pressure vessel. SSC C.40. HIC B. Sulfur .

Reactors B. A. or to avoid exposing the susceptible material to the embrittling range. All of the above 47. Fatigue resistance D. sulfuric and sulfurous acid __________ can occur if the metal temperature is below this temperature. Pitting C. Chromium 48. Cavitation is best prevented by avoiding conditions that allow the absolute pressure to fall below the ___________ of the liquid or by changing the material properties. Vapor pressure 50. Since all fuels contain some amount of sulfur. Heat exchangers C. A. A.46. A. 241 BHN D. Heater tubes D.Time-to-failure decreases as the hardness increases. Ferrite D. 237 BHN C. The amplitude and frequency of vibration as well as the _________ of the components are critical factors in vibration-induced fatigue. Martensite C. A. Fin Fans . Velocity B. 225 BHN B. Corrosion B. Hardness levels above ________ are highly susceptible to hydrogen stress cracking (HF). Pressure/vapor ratio C. __________ are the most common type of equipment susceptible to carburization in the refining industry. 247 BHN 51. A. Austenite B. Temperature C. The best way to prevent 885º F embrittlement is to use low ________ alloys. Minimum pressure B. Material properties 49. Dew point corrosion D. Maximum pressure D.

A. it is advisable to avoid sharp changes in cross section. Catalytic reactors. Wet H²S D. Water C. Different organisms thrive on different nutrients including inorganic substances (Sulfur. Long-seam welds are particularly susceptible to reheat cracking due to mismatch caused by fit up problems. MADT C. Cracking in rich amine services are most often associated with _______ problems. Velocity B. Time at exposure C. Transition range B. Ductility 55. A. H²S). None of the above 56. Creep range D. Phosphorous 53. nitrogen and _______ for growth. In design and fabrication. The pure alkanolamine does not cause cracking. all organisms require a source of carbon. Stress concentrations B. A.52. All of the above 54. Temperature . temperature and _______. H²S B. Creep damage is found in high temperature equipment operating above the ________. Amine stress corrosion cracking is most often associated with lean amine services. Cracking C. Circumferential stress D. The most important factors affecting graphitization are the chemistry. FCC reactors and FCC fractionator and regenerator internals all operate in or near this. A. and organic substances (Hydrocarbons. Fired heater tubes and components. A. Pressure D. Manganese D. stress. Oxygen B. such as short radius fillets or undercut that can give rise to _________. Stress C. Organic acids). In addition.

Which of these materials are susceptible to creep damage? A. Low temperature 62.57. Carbides. Stress ruptures are characterized by _________ failures and are usually accompanied by thinning at the fracture surface. Pressure boundary C. Increase B. Decrease C. The loss of carbides causes an overall loss in strength. Ferritic stainless steels are usually not used in __________ applications. All of the above 59. hydrogen dioxide C. High temperature D. Carbides. 9Cr-1Mo D. 300 Series SS B. A. A. Yield 58. Which of the following materials is not susceptible to high temperature hydrogen attack? A. Rapid B. Hydrogen dioxide. A. Fish-mouth C. The hydrogen reacts with __________ in steel to produce _________. Non-pressure boundary B. methane D. None of the above . which allows for deformation at stress concentrations. Low alloy steel D. A. Stainless steel C. Alloys. All of the above 60. which cannot diffuse through the steel. Reduction D. H²S 61. High temperature hydrogen attack results from exposure to hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures. Carbon steel B. 5 Cr-1Mo C. oxygen B. Tensile D. The loss in strength from spheroidization (Softening) is usually accompanied by a(n) _________ in ductility.

A. Amine. Alloy composition C. amine B. Temper embrittlement D. Steel hardness. A. A. Caustic. Alkylation D. The level of creep damage is a function of the material and the coincident _________ level at which the creep deformation occurs. The graphitization rate _______ with increasing temperature. Carbon steel B. Decreasing. None of the above 66. Decreasing. corrosion rates increase with _______ temperatures and ______ HF concentrations. Duplex stainless steel D.63. Carburization B. Titanium should not be used in known hydriding services such as _____ or ______. decreasing 64. Temperature B. A. Decreases C. Temperature/Stress D. Increasing. increasing C. None of the above 69. A. Caustic embrittlement 67. sour water C. If the BHN is 400-500 it may indicate __________. Increases B. increasing D. Hydriding C. All of the above . A. With hydrofluoric acid corrosion. Proceeds 68. Stainless steel C. Increasing. decreasing B. Both B and C 65. Pressure/Temperature B. Stops D. Sour water. Pressure/Stress C. Strength D. __________ and stress are critical factors in causing hydrogen stress cracking. Which of the following materials is susceptible to CO² corrosion? A.

Notch toughness . Convert these temperatures – 156º C and 450º F A. Stress D. 151º C B. 246º C 71. 284º F. Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) 72. Hydriding C. 218º C C. Damage in refineries is often associated with dew point corrosion in which vapors containing _______ and hydrogen chloride condense from the overhead stream of a distillation. ________ is a loss in toughness due to a metallurgical change that can occur in alloys containing a ferrite phase. A. Ductile embrittlement 73. Hydrochloric acid corrosion is a general and localized corrosion and is very aggressive to most common materials of construction. O² B. Monoethanolamine (MEA) B. Corrosion B. O C. Diethanolamine (DEA) D. as a result of exposure in the temperature range 600º F to 1000º F. titanium may suffer severe __________. A. H²O D. 304º F. Notch toughness C. A. Which of the following alkanolamine systems is the most aggressive in causing amine corrosion? A. 312º F. 885º F embrittlement D. When connected to a more anodic material. Diglycolamine (DGA) C. fractionation. or stripping tower. Caustic embrittlement B. 296º F. CO² 74.70. 232º C D.

Caustic SCC B. 400 Series SS D. Increasing chromium content in the alloy improves resistance to sulfidation. Thermal fatigue B. Stress shock 77. Stress fracture . Chloride SCC C. Which of these materials is not susceptible to amine cracking? A. A. Sulfides D. Cracking is due to sulfur acids forming from sulfide scale. 9-12 80. 5-7 C. air and moisture acting on sensitized stainless steel. None of the above 76. Thermal fatigue C. All of the above 79. there is little improvement with increasing chromium content until about ________ Cr. The presence of ________ in H²S streams increases the severity of high temperature sulfide corrosion at temperatures above about 500º F A. However. Carbon steel B. 3-5 B. Stress cracking B. 300 Series SS C. A. ________ usually occurs when a colder liquid contacts a warmer metal surface. Hydrogen C. Both B and C 78. Polythionic acid SCC D. __________ is a form of stress corrosion cracking normally occurring during shutdowns. startups or during operation when air and moisture are present. Amine B. A. Thermal shock C. _________ is the sudden rapid fracture under stress (residual or applied) where the material exhibits little or no evidence of ductility or plastic deformation. 7-9 D.75. Thermal shock D. A. Brittle fracture D.

Chromium D. 1250º F 82. organic compounds or microbiological activity is called _______. Carbon B. None of the above 83. On impellers C. All ________ based materials and low alloy materials. Increase C. Caustic embrittlement cracking can be effectively prevented by means of PWHT at a temperature of _______. A. None of the above 85. Oxidation C. Coker C. Where is PASCC normally located? A.81. Alky D. At stress risers D. None of the above 84. A. 300 Series SS and 400 Series SS are susceptible to Sulfidation. Decrease B. Adjacent to welds B. Steel C. Cooling water corrosion B. A. At flanges 86. A. Units where graphitization may be suspected are the FCCU and the _____ unit. gases. 1150º F C. MIC D. 1200º F D. Hydrotreater B. With CO² corrosion. Iron . 1100º F B. increasing temperatures _________ corrosion rates up to the point where CO² is vaporized. A. Eliminate D. General or localized corrosion of carbon steels and other metals caused by dissolved salts.

Both A and B . Carbon steel heat affected zones may experience severe corrosion. HCl acid corrosion is found in several units. A. alloy content and ____________ are critical factors affecting sulfuric acid corrosion. 100-150 C. Carbon steels B. Crude. Cracking can occur at low caustic levels if a concentrating mechanism is present. Low alloy steels C. 400 Series SS B. crude B. 400 Series SS D. hydroprocessing units and catalytic reformer units. Hydrogen stress cracking C. ____________ is a form of environmental cracking that can initiate on the surface of high strength low alloy steels and carbon steels with highly localized zones of high hardness in the weld metal and HAZ as a result of exposure to aqueous HF acid service. caustic concentrations of ________ ppm are sufficient to cause cracking. Which of these materials are susceptible to brittle fracture? A. Velocity D. 5Cr-1Mo D. Amine. A. Which of these materials is susceptible to 885º F embrittlement? A. temperature.87. Pressure B. Sulfuric acid promotes general and localized corrosion of carbon steel. Crude. Stress C. All of the above 89. Ductility 88. Vacuum 91. 200-250 92. Amine D. especially _______ and ________. Vacuum. In such cases. Acid concentration. 50-100 B. Duplex SS C. A. Sulfide stress cracking B. Alkylation C. Caustic stress cracking D. units. A. 150-200 D. Hydrogen induced cracking 90.

Sulfates 95. Cracking D. 1000º F B. Sulfur dioxide B. Sulfur trioxide D. Parallel B. Negative D. High C. A. Low B. 1050º F D. A. Diagonally D. Conditions favoring carburization include a high gas phase carbon activity and _______ oxygen potential. Pressure B. A. Positive . A. Velocity 97. Damage from sigma phase appears in the form of ________. A. Corrosion of the anode may be significantly higher ________ to the connection to the cathode. Sulfidation is primarily caused by ________ and other reactive sulfur species as a result of the thermal decomposition of sulfur compounds at high temperatures. Spheroidization and graphitization are competing mechanisms that occur at overlapping temperature ranges. 1100º F 94. Hardness C. A. Ductility 96. Material properties C. Corrosion B. H²S C. depending on solution conductivity.93. The extent and depth of decarburization is a function of temperature and ______. Perpendicular 98. 1025º F C. Spheroidization tends to occur preferentially above _______ while graphitization predominates below this temperature. Exposure time D. Adjacent C.

A. Alloys with nickel content above _________ are highly resistant to Cl SCC. 20% C. Moly C. Impact testing B. None of the above 100. Higher C. A. Sulfidization D. UT Shear wave 104. Hydrogen corrosion 103. 30% D. A. PWHT D. Chromium B. A. RT D. 35% 102. _________ corrosion rates are found in a gas oil desulfurizers and hydrocrackers than naphtha desulfurizers and hydrocrackers by a factor of almost “2”. 15% B.99. hard facing or face-hardening treatment. A. ________ eliminates the susceptibility of most common steels to SCC. Preheat B. Composition B. A. All of the above . Lower B. None of the above 101. The accepted way to test for temper embrittlement is ________. The greatest susceptibility is 8% to 12% nickel. Stress C. Improved resistance to erosion is usually achieved through increasing substrate ________ using harder alloys. Metallographic C. Silicon D. Hardness D. High temperature C. Susceptibility to temper embrittlement is largely determined by the presence of the alloying elements manganese and _______.

800º F . 700º F C. May not 106.105. 190º F 107. A. Fouling D. 220º F C. May C. Cooling water corrosion and __________ are closely related and should be considered together. 237 BHN 108. Graphitization can be prevented by using chromium containing low alloys steels for long-term exposure above ________. 300 Series SS C. Changing to a more corrosion resistant and/or higher hardness material _________ improve cavitation resistance. A. Erosion 109. Carbon steel B. Which of the following materials is not susceptible to SCC? A. 650º F B. All piping and equipment exposed to HF acid at any concentration with hardness levels above ________ are subject to hydrogen stress cracking. 227 BHN D. The dew point of sulfuric acid is __________. Dew point corrosion can occur if the metal temperature is below the dew point. 750º F D. Low alloy steel D. Velocity C. 210 BHN C. 310º F D. A. Both A and C 110. Will B. A. 280º F B. Will not D. A. Stress B. 200 BHN B.

Amine corrosion depends on the design. None of the above 114. Thermal stress 112. Welds joining dissimilar materials (ferritic and austenetic) may suffer __________ related damage at high temperatures due to differential thermal expansion stresses. Pressure B. A. Velocity C. Surface B. Loss of ductility C. Creep C. Stress B. This event can also occur in an auto refrigeration event in units processing light hydrocarbons.111. If wet electrodes or high moisture content flux weld electrodes are used to weld carbon steel. A. amine concentration. Fatigue D. the type of amine. 6. Stress fracture B. All of the above 116. Carburization C. Reduced tensile strength B. Delayed cracking D. ID C. shutdown and/or hydro testing for equipment/piping operating at elevated temperatures.0 D. Stress D.5 C. hydrogen can be charged into the steel resulting in _________. _________ is the main concern during start-up. A. operating practices. None of the above . Thermal fatigue cracks usually initiate on the _________ of the component. A. Carbon steel and low alloy steels are subject to excessive hydrochloric acid corrosion when exposed to any concentration of HCl acid that produces a pH below______. Brittle fracture 115. 5. Spheroidization D. temperature and _________. Welds D. They are generally wide and filled with oxides due to the elevated temperatures. A. 5.0 B.5 113. A. 4.

A. Alloy content B. __________ caustic concentrations and ________ temperatures increase the likelihood and severity of cracking with caustic embrittlement. Low hydrogen electrodes 119. Eliminates 120. With Cl SCC. Stainless steel D. Higher stresses C. Increasing. Water content 122. the concentration of H²S and the __________. For pressure vessels. Austenitic C. Increasing. A. Increasing 118. Decreases C. Increases B. Decreasing. CrMo alloys B. Both B and C 121. Decreasing B. Decreasing. Increasing. None of the above . Increasing. ________ levels of chloride ________ the likelihood of cracking. inspection should focus on welds of ________ operating in the creep range. Decreasing D.117. Higher pressure D. Ferritic B. A. Increasing. Stainless steels have higher coefficients of thermal expansion than carbon steel or low alloy steel or nickel based alloys and are more likely to see _________. Increases D. Carbon steel C. Increasing C. The major factors affecting high temperature sulfidation are the temperature. the presence of hydrogen. Martensitic D. Pressure D. A. A. Decreasing. Higher temperatures B. Velocity C. Dissimilar weld metal cracking forms at the toe of the weld in the heat affected zone of the ________ material. A.

Pressures B. 125º F B. None of the above . Loss B. creep cracking can occur where high metal temperatures and _________ occur together. Cl SCC usually occurs at metal temperatures above ________. Carburization can be confirmed by a substantial increase in hardness and a _______ in ductility. Stress concentrations C. RP 588 D. RP 579 C. Small C. Can B. 140º F D. 175º F C. None of the above 126. None of the above 125. Gain C. Corrosion rates of the anode will be less affected if there is a _________ anode to cathode ratio. A. What standard refers to Risk-Based-Inspection? A.123. Will D. Severe D. RP 581 B. Cannot C. Temper embrittlement _________ be prevented if the material contains critical levels of the embrittling impurity elements and is exposed in the embrittling range. A. RP 568 124. In vessels and piping. A. Change D. None of the above 127. 200º F 128. A. Velocities D. A. Large B.

A.129. Yellowish D. greenish or _________. A. All of the above 131. piping ductwork and valves in high temperature FCC regeneration service are susceptible areas for _________. 4 B. All of the above . Ammonium chloride salts may be whitish. Non-stressed relieved __________ is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when in contact with moist HF vapors in the presence of oxygen. Higher __________ containing alloys are used for improved resistance to naphthenic acid corrosion. Alloy 400 C. A. Molybdenum D. 300 Series SS D. 7 130. Corrosion fatigue 133. Sigma phase C. Chromium B. Cavitation D. Carbon C. Cooling water corrosion can result in many different forms of damage including general corrosion. pitting corrosion. 5 C. 400 Series SS 134. Brittle fracture B. A. SOHIC D. HIC C. MIC B. Stainless steel cyclones. Carbon steel B. Bluish 132. Reddish B. ________. Hydrogen permeation or diffusion rates have been found to be minimal at pH _______ and increase at both higher and lower pH’s. 6 D. A. A. stress corrosion cracking and fouling. Brownish C.

Low alloy steel 136. 1250º F 137. None of the above 140. Time D. A. 300 Series SS D. 4-8. Heat treatment can have a significant effect on the toughness and hence fatigue resistance of a metal. martensitic C. Pressure B. A. austenetic 139. ________ and stress are critical factors of stress rupture. Austenetic. Course. 15 C. 400 Series SS C. Tensile strength . For carbon steel. Which material below is not susceptible to caustic corrosion? A. Ductility C. 10 D. 30 B. If weld repairs are required. A. Even D. 20 138. 1200º F D. In general. A. This is usually found in furnaces with coking tendencies and fired heater tubes. Carbon steel B. the effects of temper embrittlement can be temporarily reversed (de-embrittled) by heating at ______ for 2 hours per inch of thickness and rapidly cooling to room temperature. Short term overheating is a permanent deformation occurring at relatively _________ stress levels as a result of localized overheating. Fine D. Temperature. A. ________ grained microstructures tend to perform better than _________ grained. 6-9. 1000º F B. High C. common velocity limits are generally limited to _________ fps for rich amine and _______ fps for lean amine. 8-10. 1150º F C. Martensitic. Fine. Low B. This usually results in bulging and failure by stress rupture. Course B.135. 3-6.

The effects of hydrogen embrittlement ___________ with _________ temperatures. Graphiding D. Upward B. Temper embrittlement can be identified by a(n) shift in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature measured in a Charpy impact test.141. Decrease. A. where the carbide phases in carbon steels are unstable and may agglomerate from their normal plate-like appearance. 1250º F . Small C. Cooling water corrosion is a concern with water-cooled __________ and cooling towers in all applications across all industries. 885º Embrittlement 145. Increase. decreasing C. A. Downward C. Decrease. 1200º F D. A. 1150º F C. Severe D. __________ is a change in the microstructure of steels after exposure in the 850º F to 1400º F range. A. Application of a post-fabrication stress relieving heat treatment of about ______ is a proven method of preventing carbonate cracking. Exchangers 144. None of the above 146. Carburization B. increasing 142. increasing B. Vessels C. Increase. Piping D. 1100º F B. Abrupt D. A. decreasing D. Corrosion rates of the anode can be high if there is a _______ anode to cathode ratio. Spheroidization C. Pumps B. None of the above 143. A. Large B.

SCC. Both A and C 152. unexpected failure. Decreases. increasing B. Water D. Ammonium chloride B. Susceptibility to hydrogen stress cracking __________ with __________ hardness. Salt 148. A. Carbon steel B. increasing C. A small amount of _________ can lead to very aggressive corrosion. ________ and _______ damage develop without applied or residual stress so that PWHT will not prevent them from occurring. HIC 150. Mechanical fatigue C. 316 SS D. Carbonate 151. Corrosion protection in the boiler is accomplished by laying down and continuously maintaining a layer of _____. A. Decreasing D. All commonly used materials are susceptible to ammonium chloride corrosion. Both A and B . Cyclic fatigue 149. Manganese B. Decreases. Which of these materials are not susceptible to Spheroidization? A. A. Carbon monoxide D.147. HIC. Increases. Blistering. Thermal fatigue D. _________ is a mechanical form of degradation that occurs when a component is exposed to cyclical stresses for an extended period. often resulting in sudden. 9Cr-1Mo C. Amine C. SOHIC C. normally occurring under ammonium chloride or amine salt deposits. SCC D. A. A. often pitting. Blistering B. Stress fatigue B. Magnetite C. Ammonium chloride corrosion is the general or localized corrosion. SOHIC.

700º F. A. 300 Series SS B. None of the above 158. dissimilar weld metal cracking forms primarily on the _______ of the material. Resistivity C. 300 Series SS C. None of the above 157. A. Two phase C. 1000º F D. Carbon steel C. Cathodic protection B. Temperature D. 800º F. 600º F. Welds D. 500º F.153. In fired heater tubes. Both A and C . Outside B. Naphthenic acid corrosion is most severe in _________ flow. Three phase D. Negative phase 154. Inside C. 400 Series SS D. All of the above 156. 900º F C. 800º F B. Carbon steel B. 400 Series SS D. Which of the following materials are generally not suitable for HF service? A. Single phase B. Which of these materials exhibit an endurance limit below which fatigue cracking will not occur? A. Soil corrosion of carbon steel can be minimized through the use of special backfill. in areas of high velocity or turbulence and in distillation towers where hot vapors condense to form liquid phase droplets. 1100º F 155. A. A. coatings and _______. Nitriding begins above ________ and becomes severe above _______.

C² B. In piping and equipment. A. 200º F D. Typical HF Alkylation units operate with 1% to 3% water in the acid. can progress rapidly. Creep cracking. Exposure to high solution strength caustic can result in general corrosion or high corrosion rates above ________. None of the above 164. A. 150º F C. 250º F C. equivalent to an HF-in-water concentration of 97% to 99% and the temperatures are generally below _________. The temperature at which carbon diffusion becomes a concern is above ________. 125º F D. What is the chemical symbol for ethane or ethylene? A. Velocities D. None of the above 160. dissimilar weld metal cracking is aggravated by the diffusion of carbon out of the weld metal and into the base metal. 800º F D. C3 C.159. 700º F B. once initiated. 150º F 163. Carbon steel will be ______. A. With decarburization. Quenched C. Stress risers C. 100º F 162. 900º F 161. At elevated temperatures. CH4 . 300º F B. Annealed B. Pressures B. 175º F B. Pure iron D. A. creep cracking can occur where high metal temperatures and _________ occur together. 750º F C. C4 D. the decarburized layer will be free of carbide phases. A.

grooves. Corrosion/Erosion C. These losses often exhibit a directional pattern. A. rounded holes and valleys. 400 Series SS D. None of the above 167. Both A and B 168. ____________ are characterized by a localized loss in thickness in the form of pits. A. 500º F D. 800º F B. Environmental corrosion D. HIC B. All of the above 166. gullies. 300 Series SS C. WFMT B. All of the above 169.165. SOHIC C. algae or fungi is _______ . AET D. Carbon steel B. A form of corrosion caused by living organisms such as bacteria. 400º F . A. A. UT Shear wave C. MIC D. Erosion B. Naphthenic acid corrosion is a form of high temperature corrosion that occurs primarily in crude and vacuum units and downstream units that process certain fractions that contain naphthenic acid. The best method to inspect for SCC is ____. 600º F C. Which of the following materials is susceptible to naphthenic acid corrosion? A. Stainless steels with sigma can normally withstand normal operating stresses but upon cooling to temperatures below _______ may show a complete lack of fracture toughness as measured by a Charpy impact test. waves.

Course. A. Caustic 173. None of the above . 5% D. 750º F C. A. A193-B7M bolts are susceptible if __________. Hydrogen B. 700º F B. The “L” grades will not sensitize provided long term operating temperatures do not exceed about __________. Fine. Non-PWHT D. PWHT 174. _________ grained steels are more resistant than ______ grained steels. Annealed steels are more resistant to Spheroidization than normalized steels. A. Fine C. Double nutted D. 800º F D. High strength. A. 12% C. 9% B. Increasing the chromium in steels offers no major improvement in resistance to CO² corrosion until a minimum of __________ is reached. Cyanide D. Oxygen C. Overtorqued C. Course B. Low carbon “L” grades are less susceptible and usually can be welded without sensitizing. Regular and controlled carbon grades of stainless steels such as types 304/304H and 316/316H are particularly susceptible to sensitization in the weld HAZ. low allow steels such as A193-B7 bolts and compressor parts are susceptible to hydrogen stress cracking. _________ significantly increases the probability and severity of blistering.170. Exposed B. 7% 172. 900º F 171. A. HIC and SOHIC. PWHT. Non-PWHT.

Carbon dioxide (CO²) may also be present. Stress fatigue D. Which of the following materials is not susceptible to Cl SCC? A. Carbon steel B. Low alloy steel B. Caustic embrittlement is a form of stress corrosion cracking characterized by surface-initiated cracks that occur in piping and equipment exposed to caustic. primarily adjacent to non-PWHT welds. Which of the following materials is not affected by this? A. during PWHT and from exposure to fires. Thermal fatigue 178. Pressure 180. 400 Series SS 177. Which of the following materials is susceptible to sour water corrosion? A. Stress cracking C. Duplex SS C. ________ of a component is the most important factor in determining a components resistance to mechanical fatigue. All of the above 176. Duplex SS C. None of the above . 400 Series SS D. Stress D. Carbon steel B. Nickel based alloys D. Design B. Low alloy steels D. Cyclic cracking B.5 and 7. 300 Series SS C. A. Corrosion due to acidic sour water containing H²S at a pH between 4. This occurs during high temperatures. Temperature C.0 is called sour water corrosion. Nickel based alloys C. Both B and C 179.175. Carbon steel D. 400 Series SS B. ___________ is the result of cyclic stresses caused by variations in temperature. Which of the following materials is the most resistant to embrittlement? A. A. A condition where steel loses strength due to the removal of carbon and carbides leaving only an iron matrix is called decarburization.

Temperature B. None of the above 183. A. Ductility B. Sulfuric C. Wet H²S services or _________ acid services are process where hydrogen diffuses into the steel and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is an issue. None of the above 182. Both A and B . Water chemistry D.181. Both of the above D. None of the above 184. Which of the following materials is susceptible to sigma phase embrittlement? A. Austenitic B. Velocity C. A. Cracking of dissimilar weld metals occurs in the __________ side of a weld joining 300 Series SS and carbon steel. near the fusion line on the ferritic side. A. A. Hardness C. HF B. Ferritic C. Caustic D. Carbon steel B. Stress levels and __________ are the critical factors causing carbonate stress corrosion cracking. Cracking D. Low alloy steel C. HCL 185. Dissimilar metal welds with a 300 Series stainless steel weld metal on a ferritic steel may also result in narrow region of _________ at the toe of the weld. 300 Series SS D.

Refractory anchors must be resistant to __________ in high temperature services. hydrogen partial pressure. UW-26 B. UCS-66 . Unaffected material will be crushed in a ductile fashion while embrittled components will crack with no signs of ductility. A. Division 1. decreasing 190. UG-31 C. Thermal fatigue B. The severity of hydrochloric acid corrosion ________ with _________ HCl concentration and increasing temperatures. A. A quick test for embrittlement from _________ is a bend test or crush test. General B. For a specific material. Pitting D. decreasing B. Increases. Cracking 191. Titanium Hydriding B. Localized C. None of the above. Oxidation 188. Thermal cracking C. increasing C. Velocity D. Temper embrittlement C. Pressure C. Corrosion from oxygen tends to be __________ type damage and can show up anywhere even if only very small amounts break through the scavenging system. time and _________. increasing D. Increases. Alloy composition 189. A. Caustic embrittlement D. Vessels constructed after December. Stress cracking D. A. Stress B. Decreases. 1987 are subject to the requirements of ________ of ASME Section VIII. A.186. HTHA is dependent on temperature. UB-54 D. 187. Decreases. A.

900º F C. In most cases. Velocities D. A. Pressure decreases D. Oxidation of carbon steel begins to become significant above _________. Alloy composition B. Temperature B. A. All of the above 194. A. the number of cycles to fatigue fracture decreases with ________ until an endurance limit is reached. carbon steel and low alloy steel. Stress endurance C. Which of the following materials is affected by high temperature corrosion? A. Grain size D. 800º F B. None of the above 195. 1100º F 197.192. SCC D. A. Pressure 193. Temperature increases B. regardless of the number of cycles. 300 Series SS C. Tensile strength C. SOHIC B. Cracks connecting hydrogen blisters are referred to as ________. 1000º F D. Loss of the protective scale through high _________ or turbulence will result in greatly accelerated corrosion rates. None of the above . Pressure C. fatigue cracking will not occur. A. carbon steel forms a protective fluoride scale in dry concentrated acid. None of the above 196. 400 Series SS D. brittle fracture occurs only at temperatures below the Charpy impact transition temperature. Below this endurance limit. Carbon steel B. For some materials such as titanium. HIC C. Steel cleanliness and ________ have a significant influence on toughness and resistance to brittle fracture. In HF service.

Decreasing D. Diagonal. Eyebrow B. Increasing 201. A. Decreasing. sulfur trioxide and hydrogen chloride within the combustion products. Both A and C 200. Decreasing. Spider web C. Half moon D. Decreasing B. A. time to failure is a function of the magnitude of the stress and the number of cycles and decreases with _________ stress and ________ cycles. Sulfuric D. 10% B. With thermal fatigue. Sulfur and chlorine species in fuel will form sulfur dioxide. the pattern of cracking observed on the surface is sometimes described as ________. these gases and the water vapor in the flue gas will condense to form _________ acid. Transverse. Carbonate cracking typically propagates _________ to the weld. Effective B. PWHT is ___________ in preventing caustic SCC. None of the above 199. 30% .198. A. Parallel. Increasing C. Not effective C. Dissimilar weld metal cracking occurs because the coefficients of thermal expansion between ferritic steels and 300 Series stainless steels differ by ________ or more. Stair step 202. 20% D. At low enough temperatures. 15% C. A. Increasing. Perpendicular. Increasing. Hydrochloric B. A. Not practical D. Hydrofluoric C.

Hardness is primarily an issue with SSC. With steam blanketing. More likely C. Oxidation C. Stress risers B. 240 BHN 208. Temperatures approaching the boiling point of the liquid are _________ to result in bubble formation. A. Not likely D. None of the above . Is B. A. Dealloying D. grinding out the affected area ______ an acceptable fix. 237 BHN C. Characteristic stress corrosion cracks have many branches and may be visually detectable by a __________ appearance on the surface. Thermal fatigue 204. Can not be 206. Multiple crack D. Velocity C. A. Craze-cracked C. failure occurs as a result of _________ in the tube from the internal steam pressure at the elevated temperature. High temperature corrosion B. 225 BHN B. Hoop stress D. Typical low strength carbon steels should be controlled to produce weld hardness less than ________. Once cracking from LME has occurred. Tensile strength 205.203. Tree shaped B. Cavitation is a form of erosion caused by the formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny vapor bubbles. Less likely B. ___________ is when oxygen reacts with carbon steel and other alloys at high temperatures converting the metal to oxide scale. A. A. Can be D. 200 BHN D. A. None of the above 207. Is not C.

decrease B. None of the above 214. Which of these materials are not susceptible to PASCC? A. 190º F C. Graphitization C. Temperatures above _________ can result in acid gas flashing and severe localized corrosion. ___________ cooling water outlet temperatures and/or process side outlet temperatures tend to __________ corrosion rates as well as fouling tendency.209. A. increase 211. Carbon steel B. None of the above 212. Alkaline corrosion D. 170º F B. Localized corrosion due to the concentration of caustic or alkaline salts that usually occurs under evaporative conditions is ___. Caustic corrosion C. Decreasing. Lean amine is generally not corrosive because they have either low conductivity and/or high pH. increase D. Hangers B. ____________ is the reduction in toughness due to a metallurgical change that can occur in some low alloy steels as a result of long-term exposure in the temperature range of about 650º F to 1100º F. Increasing. Spheroidization D. Hardening B. Vibration-induced fatigue can be eliminated or reduced through _________ and the use of supports and vibration dampening equipment. 220º F D. 240º F . A. Design D. Increasing. Material upgrades are not usually a solution. Dummy legs C. A. Carbonate corrosion B. Corrosion rates increase with increasing temperatures. A. 400 Series SS D. Temper embrittlement 213. Both A and C 210. 300 Series SS C. Decreasing. particularly in rich amine service. decrease C. A.

Weldments C. It is most often found in heavy wall sections. Stainless steel D. A. Cracking of a metal due to stress relaxation during PWHT or in service at elevated temperatures is called ______. Thermal cracking B. A. None of the above 218. In pressure containing equipment. Carbon dioxide corrosion results when CO² dissolves in water to form _________ acid. thermal shock and __________. Branches D. Carbonic D.215. Step-like cracking D. Hydrochloric C. Carbon steel B. A. Which if the following materials are not susceptible to hydrogen stress cracking? A. Thermal expansion C. None of the above 216. None of the above 219. Low alloy steel C. Thermal fatigue B. Sulfuric B. Refractory lined equipment should be designed for erosion. A. All of the above . Reheat cracking C. Internals B. None of the above 217. Thermal contraction D. SOHIC and SCC damage is most often associated with __________.

C3 C. Enhanced B. CH4 . bottom water of storage tanks. Duplex SS C. Concentrated D. Decreases D. MIC is often found in _________. Stress cracking. Thermal fatigue cracks usually propagate _______ to the stress and they are usually dagger-shaped. Parallel B. All of the above 223. Cl SCC. A. Across 224. Amine corrosion refers to the general and/or localized corrosion that occurs principally on _________ in amine treating processes. 300 Series SS D. piping with stagnant or low flow and piping in contact with some soils. Naphthenic acid is _____ by catalytic reactions in downstream hydroprocessing and FCC units. but results from dissolved acid gases (CO² and H²S). A. Diagonal C. Drums D. A. Destroyed C. A. Transverse D.220. C4 D. A. Decreases 225. What is the chemical symbol for propane or propylene? A. C² B. temperature and an aqueous chloride environmental is called ________. Cl SCC. heat stable amine salts and other contaminants. Heat exchangers C. Increases B. Surface initiated cracks caused by environmental cracking of 300 Series SS and some nickel based alloys under the combined action of tensile stress. Vessels B. The presence of dissolved oxygen ___________ the propensity for cracking. amine degradation products. Diluted 222. Corrosion is not caused by the amine itself. Stress cracking. 400 Series SS 221. Carbon steel B. Increases C.

Eyebrow B. Hydrogen sulfide C. increased stress due to loss in thickness from corrosion will ________ time to failure. Alloying 227. Increase B. A. In general. A. Chromium C. A. Not affect D. Clam Shell 230. An electrical connection D. A. Sulfur dioxide B. the resistance of carbon steel and other alloys to High temperature corrosion is determined by the ________ content of the material. Atomic hydrogen D. For galvanic corrosion to take place. three conditions must be met. two different materials or alloys and _____. presence of an electrolyte. Hydrogen chloride 228. None of the above 231. In general. Reduce C. A. Radii D. Carbon C. Molybdenum B. SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking resulting from the absorption of ________ that is produced by the sulfide corrosion process on the metal surface. Carbon D. Chromium B.226. The signature mark of a fatigue failure is a _______ type fingerprint that has concentric rings. Molybdenum D. With creep. A cathode B. the resistance of iron and nickel based alloys to sulfidation is determined by the ________ content of the material. Half-Moon C. A. An anode C. All of the above . None of the above 229.

None of the above 235. In addition. Low alloys B. A.232. A. while _________ are less susceptible. Duplex SS C. Hydrogen B. H²S. 300 Series SS. Sulfide scales C. Susceptibility of an alloy to sulfidation is determined by its ability to form protective _________. 400 Series SS and duplex SS are subject to pitting and localized corrosion under insulation. Duplex SS. A. Hydrogen. Carbide scales D. A. Water. noticeable increases may be found downstream of _________ injection points. Oxide B. Caustic C. Sulfur. water C. 300 Series Ss D. __________ are also subject to SCC if chlorides are present. Oxide scales B. Carbon monoxide B. Carbon dioxide C. 300 Series SS. Water 234. Ammonia D. H²S . Oxygen D. With high temperature sulfide corrosion (Sulfidization). Duplex SS. None of the above 233. A. H²S 236. Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) is defined as cracking of metal under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of _________ and _________. Corrosion in boiler feedwater and condensate return systems is usually the result of dissolved gases. oxygen and ________. Material properties D.

Spheroidization C. Metal dusting C. None of the above 239. More B. brittle surface layer will develop on some alloys due to exposure to high temperature process streams containing high levels of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia or cyanides. Step like D. Jagged 238. Crescent B. Fracture toughness C. Carburization B. In some cases. Or low stresses in the upper creep range. in the middle of the plate or near a weld. A. Carburization B. Ductility B. Eyebrow C. None of the above 240.237. There is currently no known metal alloy that is immune to _________ under all conditions. Embrittlement D. Equally D. A hard. is called _______. A. Formation of a metallurgical phase known as sigma phase results in a loss of _________ in some stainless steels as a result of high temperature exposure. Decarburization D. Low creep ductility is _____ prevalent at the lower temperatures in the creep range. Hydrogen blisters may form at many different depths from the surface of the steel. None of the above . A. particularly under reducing conditions. Less C. neighboring or adjacent blisters that are at slightly different depths (planes) may develop cracks that link them together. Nitriding D. A. A. None of the above 241. Interconnecting cracks between the blisters often have a __________ appearance.

400 Series SS D. A. All of the above 245. Fatigue cracking D. A. Perpendicular . Spheroidization B. Metallic components form a surface __________ when exposed to sulfur compounds. Stress cracking 244. A loss in ductility of high strength steels due to the penetration of atomic hydrogen can lead to brittle cracking called hydrogen embrittlement. This may react with air (oxygen) and moisture to form sulfur acids (polythionic acid). A. Caustic scale 243. 600º F C. A form of mechanical fatigue in which cracks are produced as a result of dynamic loadings is _______. Sulfide scale C. All of the above 246. Carbon steel B. 800º F D. Carbon steel B. A. Oxide B. A. 1000º F 247. Jagged B. Straight D. Cracks associated with brittle fracture will typically be _________. Branching C. Vibration-induced cracking C. 300 Series SS C. Which of the following materials are susceptible to nitriding? A. Sulfidation of iron-based alloys usually begins at metal temperatures above _____. Low alloy steel D.242. 500º F B. 400 Series SS C. Sulfate scale D. Which of the following materials is susceptible to HE.

Zinc C. RP 588 D. A. 100º C. __________ testing is the best method to determine the susceptibility of a material to hydrogen stress cracking. None of the above 253. RP 568 252. The more noble material. Cadmium B. Corrosion under insulation becomes more severe at metal temperatures between ________ and ________. called the ________. Lead D. AUT . SWUT D. Omega D. Cathode B. None of the above 251. Both A and C 250. Decarburization B. Hardness B. What standard refers to Fitness-For-Service evaluations? A. A. A.248. Anode C. 132º C D. Anode. A. RP 581 B. High strength steels are susceptible to LME when they come in contact with molten ________. None of the above 249. 116º C C. called the ________. A. RP 579 C. The more active metal corrodes at a higher rate than it would if it were not connected to the more noble metal. 92º C. 114º C. where water is less likely to vaporize and insulation stays wet longer. Carburization C. Alpha. 121º C B. Acoustic C. Graphitization D. is protected by sacrificial corrosion of the more active material. Cathode. Metal dusting is preceded by ________ and is characterized by rapid metal wastage.

C3 C. the difference between the actual pressure. None of the above . The minimum head required to prevent cavitation with a given liquid at a given flow rate is called Net Positive Suction Head __________. A. Surplus B. Required C. Potential D. Increase B. 400 Series SS D. A. Electrolyte 259. All of the above 256. 1400º F 258. With short term overheating. Decrease C. Resistivity B. C4 D. Reserve D. 1200º F D. C² B. What is the chemical symbol for butane of butylenes? A. 1100º F C. None of the above 255. In a pump. of a liquid available (measured on the suction side) and the vapor pressure of that liquid is called Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available. Carbon steel B. 1000º F B. 300 Series SS C. The most common method used for monitoring underground structures is measuring the structure to soil ______ using dedicated reference electrodes near the structure. Remain the same D. Temperatures usually have to be above __________ for this to occur. When carbon is absorbed into a material at elevated temperatures while in contact with a carbonaceous substance it is called carburization. or head. Corrosiveness C. time to failure will ___________ as internal pressures or loading decrease. Which of the following are affected by sulfidation? A. Inadequate NPSH can result in cavitation. CH4 257.254. A. A.

Spheroidization D. ________ greatly increases the probability and severity of blistering. None of the above 262.260. Stress concentrations D. None of the above . Ozone B. A. A. Branches B. Acids B. Pits usually form on the surface and may contain soot or graphite dust. A. Hydrate corrosion B. SA-53 Gr B D. A. Caustic C. Metal dusting 263. Proper application of ________ will control but not eliminate microbes that cause MIC so that continued treatment is necessary. Caustics C. SA-182 Gr B C. As D. Carbide corrosion C. _________ is a form of carburization resulting in accelerated localized pitting which occurs in carburizing gases and/or process streams containing carbon and hydrogen. Biocides D. All of the above 261. Less C. Which of the following are susceptible to thermal fatigue? A. Fatigue cracks usually initiate on the surface at notches or __________ under cyclic loading. Cyanides 265. Amine cracking is ________ likely to occur in lean MEA and DEA services than in MDEA and DIPA services. Amines D. More B. A. HIC and SOHIC damage. Grinding marks 264. SA-516-70 B. Laterals C.

None of the above 269. velocity 267. Nickel D. Thermal fatigue B. or by exposing the metal surface to further ________ under the combined action of corrosion-erosion. corrosion C. Corrosion. Resistivity C. Soils having high moisture content. Cyclic stress C. Molybdenum C. Erosion-corrosion is a description for the damage that occurs when corrosion contributes to erosion by removing protective films or scales. Stress B. Notch toughness D. A. Carbon . Alloys with increased amounts of _______ show improved resistance to naphthenic acid corrosion. A.266. Chromium B. Brittle fracture 270. Temperature. Although the loss of toughness from temper embrittlement is not evident at operating temperatures. A. Tensile stress. Carbonate stress corrosion cracking is the term applied to surface breaking or cracks that occur adjacent to carbon steel welds under the combined action of ____________ and ___________ in carbonate containing systems. equipment that is temper embrittled may be susceptible to ________ during start-up and shutdown. A. Acidity D. All of the above 268. Oxygen content B. Oxidation D. velocity D. high dissolved salt concentrations and high ________ are the most corrosive. stress B. A. Tensile stress. Corrosion C.

Sulfidation 275. Steam blanketing is when the heat flow balance is disturbed. as a result of _________. Transverse B. cracking may be suspected if the temperature swing exceeds about _________. Once a steam blanket forms. Sulfide corrosion B. 200º F C. Coker D. Thermal fatigue B. A. Parallel D. Corrosion of carbon steel and other alloys from their reaction with sulfur compounds in high temperature environments is called ______. A. Stress 272.271. Perpendicular C. Hydrocracker C. A. Hydrotreater B. High temperature corrosion C. Short term overheating C. 250º F D. There is no set limit on temperature swings. tube rupture can occur rapidly. A. Caustic stress corrosion cracking typically propagates _______ to the weld in adjacent base metal but can occur in the weld deposit or heat affected zone. A. Brittle fracture D. catalytic reformer and ______. however. individual bubbles join to form a steam blanket. FCC. a condition known as Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB). 300º F 274. as a practical rule. Primarily hot-wall piping and equipment in the following units can be affected by graphitization. 150º F B. H²S corrosion D. Across 273. The presence of hydrogen accelerates corrosion. Alky . Start-up and shutdown of equipment increase the susceptibility of thermal fatigue.

Oxide B. pressure C. Diglycolamine (DGA) C.276. Strength B. A. HIC C. A. All of the above 281. Pressure 277. Which of the methods are effective for finding thermal fatigue cracks? A. Monoethanolamine (MEA) B. Stress. A. VT D. MT B. SOHIC B. Carburization D. Tubercles C. Cup shaped pits 279. Hydriding of titanium is a metallurgical phenomenon in which hydrogen diffuses into the titanium and reacts to form an embrittling phase. Hardness 280. Worm holes D. MIC is often characterized by _______ within pits in carbon steel. ______ is most likely found in hard welds and heat affected zones and in high strength components. minimizing pressure at ambient temperatures during start-up and shutdown and periodic inspections at high stress locations. Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) . stress B. Diethanolamine (DEA) D. Carbides D. Ductility C. stress D. A. This can result in a complete loss of _________ with no noticeable sign of corrosion or loss of thickness. Preventative measures to minimize the potential for brittle fracture in existing equipment are limited to controlling _______ and ________. Temperature. Which of the following alkanolamine systems is the least aggressive in causing amine corrosion? A. PT C. Temperature. SSC 278. Velocity.

400 Series SS D. All of the above 284. Cadmium B. 300 Series SS C. A form of corrosion that can occur at the junction of dissimilar metals when they are joined together in a suitable electrolyte is ____. heat exchanger tubes and other titanium equipment operating above _________. Delayed cracking C. Low alloy steels B. Galvanic corrosion B. Which of the following materials is susceptible to carburization? A. SOHIC D. 210º F D. Anodic corrosion C. 180º F C. Corrosion by HF (Hydrofluoric) acid can result in high rates of general or localized corrosion and may be accompanied by hydrogen cracking. 240º F 287. A. 300 Series SS is susceptible to LME when it comes in contact with molten ________. A. blistering and ________. A. SCC generally occurs below about _______. 270º F C. 300º F B. HIC B. All of the above 285. 150º F B. Cathodic corrosion D. Lead 283. Mercury C. Titanium Hydriding damage occurs primarily in sour water strippers and amine units in the overhead condensers. A. 210º F D. A. 165º F . Both A and C 286.282. Zinc D.

Hydrogen stress cracking is the same mechanism that is responsible for sulfide stress corrosion cracking in wet H²S environments except that HF acid is generating the __________. martensitic. Phenol corrosion B. 537º C – 954º C B. All of the above 291. Stainless steels C. Sigma phase occurs in Ferritic. 676º C – 760º C D. _________ and material properties are the predominate factors in determining the fatigue resistance of a component. Sulfide B. A. A. Hydrogen D. None of the above 293. Sulfur corrosion B. Water 292. 621º C – 926º C C. Velocity D. Sulfate corrosion C. austenitic and duplex stainless steels when exposed to temperatures in the range of _____. Dealloying C. 584º C – 840º C 290. Carburization D. _________ is a selective corrosion mechanism in which one or more constituents of an alloy are preferentially attacked leaving a lower density oftenporous structure. A. Pressure C.288. Caustic C. stress level. A. Sulfidic corrosion D. Low alloy steels D. Temperature B. Which of the following materials are subject to mechanical fatigue? A. A. Geometry. Preferentially weld attack . Sulfidation is also known as ____________. Carbon steels B. Number of cycles 289.

Soil corrosion appears as external thinning with localized losses due to _________. H²S 296. A. Cadmium B. Caustic embrittlement D. Zinc D. Mercury C. Thermal cycling C. A. Caustic B. A. CO² and _________ from process streams originating in many units including the coker. particularly under repeated __________. Sulfide corrosion C. crude. Mercaptans D. FCC and hydrogen. A. overhead systems and the _________ treating system. Hydrogen cracking 299. A. Sulfuric acid C. reboilers. A. deisobutanizer. Cl² C. including H²S and mercaptan removal units. Cyclic stresses B. All of the above 298. Amine units are used in refineries to remove H²S. ____________ is often found in piping and equipment that handles caustic.294. Resistivity B. as well as equipment that uses caustic for neutralization in sulfuric acid and HF acid units. General corrosion D. Catalyst D. Carburization B. Pressure variations D. Potential . Pitting C. Lead 297. Alloy 400 is susceptible to LME when it comes in contact with molten ________. NA² B. Areas of vulnerability in sulfuric acid Alkylation units include reactor effluent lines. Thermal fatigue damage is in the form of cracking that may occur anywhere in a metallic component where relative movement is constrained. None of the above 295.

Deformation B. A form of fatigue cracking in which cracks develop under the combined effects of cyclic loading and corrosion is called _______. Contrary to a pure mechanical fatigue. Refractory anchor material must be compatible with the _________ of the base metal A.300. Corrosion control C. HIC C. Caustic is sometimes added to process streams for ________ or as a reactant. Thermal coefficient D. This time dependent deformation of stressed components is known as __________. Welding C. Stress C. A. Ductile D. Stress cracking 305. Corrosion promotes failure at a lower stress and number of cycles than the materials normal endurance. Fatigue C. Thermal fatigue 301. A. All of the above 302. Cyclic cracking B. Corrosion fatigue C. metal components can slowly and continuously deform under load below the yield stress. Foul smelling water may be a sign of fouling and/or _______ A. Stability B. A. MIC B. Ductility . Composition B. Inhibiting 303. SOHIC D. Creep D. At high temperatures. Tensile B. there is no _________ load in corrosion-assistant fatigue. Fatigue limit 304. Neutralization D. Cracking often initiates at stress concentrations such as a pit in the surface. Stress fatigue D. A.

Brittle fracture C. which increases triaxial stresses at the crack tip. Cavitation D. Graphitization 311. Carburization C. Decreases C. A. Metallography D. Thicker. Metallographic examination B. A. Thicker. A nickel based filler metal has a coefficient of thermal expansion closer to carbon steel resulting in significantly lower stress at elevated temperatures. A. A. Damage due to __________ is not visible and can only be observed by metallographic examination. Lower B. Higher 307.306. Stabilizes D. A. _________ material sections also have a ___________ resistance to brittle fracture due to higher constraint. SCC tendency __________ toward the alkaline pH region. Higher D. Lower B. Thinner. Increases B. Galvanic corrosion B. Lower C. Impact testing C. Sulfide 310. Stress B. Stresses acting on the weldments are significantly ________ when austenitic stainless steel filler metal is used. ___________ cracking has been a major problem in coke drum shells. Higher C. None of the above . Altered D. Thermal fatigue D. A. None of the above 309. None of the above 308. SCC usually occurs at pH values above two (2). Temper embrittlement is a metallurgical change that is not readily apparent and can be confirmed through ________. Thinner.

Generally. Hydrogen 313. Chromium B. 25º F. In most cases. Composition B. load and temperature. Grain size D.312. Below C. 10% . 7%-9% D. increasing amounts of ________ increase susceptibility to damage when operating in the high temperature range of concern. 50º F. The rate of damage is sensitive to both load and temperature. 50º F. Around D. The rate of creep deformation is a function of the material. an increase of about _______ or an increase of ________ on stress can cut the remaining life in half. Above B. Pressure C. None of the above 316. 5%-7% C. A. 3%-5% B. Time of exposure B. Hardness C. Inside 317. 25º F. Stress D. A. In susceptible materials. Ferrite D. the primary factor that affects sigma phase formation is the ________ at elevated temperatures. A. A. brittle fracture occurs only at temperatures _________ the Charpy impact transition temperature. Alloy C. With 885º F embrittlement. Velocity 314. A. Sigma phase in welds can be minimized by controlling ferrite in the range of _________ for Type 347 SS. A. 10% C. Steel cleanliness and _______ have a significant influence on toughness and resistance to brittle fracture. 5%-9% 315. 15% B. 15% D.

Alloy composition 322. 426º C D. Fine.318. Number of cycles B. Pressure D. 371º C C. Velocity . Material properties C. Thermal stress C. can occur when high and nonuniform thermal stresses develop over a relatively short period of time in a piece of equipment due to differential expansion and contraction. 600º F B. Stress D. __________. 315º C B. A form of thermal cracking. Thermal shock D. None of the above 319. Key factors affecting thermal fatigue are the magnitude of the temperature and the __________. 800º F D. 5 and 9 Cr is ________. The creep threshold temperature for carbon steel is ________. Creep and stress rupture is more likely in a _________ grained material than a _______ grained material. Thermal expansion B. Course. Geometry. 700º F C. Martensitic D. A. Temperature B. Course C. stress level. A. Linear expansion 323. The creep threshold temperature for 1 ¼. 2 ¼. 538º C 321. Fine B. A. A. A. Pressure C. A. Austenetic. number of cycles and _________ are the predominate factors in determining the fatigue resistance of a component. 1000º F 320.

300 Series SS can suffer pitting corrosion. Carbon monoxide B. Oxidation C. A. Decreasing. oxygen and _______. Decreasing. Hydrofluoric acid D. Pressure B. Alloy composition C. Corrosion in boiler feedwater and condensate return systems is usually the result of dissolved gases. Oxygen . A. blackish and salt water. General corrosion B. SCC D. With very few exceptions. increasing B. crevice corrosion and ________ in fresh. cooling water should always be on the ________ side to minimize stagnant areas. _________ oxygen content tends to ________ carbon steel corrosion rates. A. Temperature D. H²O C. Outlet 327. A. decreasing C. Inlet D. Increasing. Tube B. Carbonic acid C. With cooling water corrosion. None of the above 326. decreasing 325. The primary factors affecting high temperature oxidation are metal temperature and _______. increasing D.324. Carbon monoxide B. A. Increasing. A. Carbon dioxide (CO²) corrosion results when CO² dissolves in water to form ________. None of the above 329. Shell C. Carbon Dioxide 328. Stress D.

Aluminum 331. Time B. Chromium B. _______ is the primary alloying agent that affects resistance to oxidation. Carbon B. Chromium C. Concentration of sulfur 333. Aluminum D. Molybdenum C. Molybdenum C. Decreases C. Coke C. A. Stress 335. Carbonic acid B.330. Silicon D. With sulfidation. To prevent carburization. Both A and C . Silicon B. A. Crude oil D. None of the above 334. A. A. Components that have been carburized may have a change in the level of ________. Stress C. particularly during decoke cycles where temperatures exceed the normal operating temperatures. A. the presence of oxygen ________ corrosion A. temperature and ________. Major factors affecting sulfidation are alloy composition. Concentration of hydrogen D. Ferromagnetism D. Stops 332. select alloys with a strong surface oxide or sulfide film former such as ________. ________ is a form of carbon that may promote carburization. Has no effect on D. Increases B.

None of the above 338. A. Dealloying C. A fatigue fracture is brittle and the cracks are most often __________. which can be confirmed by hardness testing. _________ is surface initiated cracks caused by environmental cracking of 300 Series SS and some nickel based alloys under the combined action of tensile stress. temperature and an aqueous chloride environment. A. PWHT B. Spheroidization B. Transverse 341. When caustic stress corrosion cracking is a concern. Parallel B.336. Non-PWHT C. A. Oxidizing 337. Decarburization results in a __________. Hardness B. Transgranular C. 400 Series SS C. A. SSC B. steam out of _________ carbon steel piping and equipment should be avoided. Hardened . HIC 340. 300 Series SS B. Softness C. A. Nitriding layers are magnetic. Therefore. Cl SCC D. Brittleness D. Duplex SS D. SOHIC C. Fuel ash corrosion D. A. Ferritic D. Low alloy steel 339. _________ should be checked for magnetism as an initial screening for nitriding. _________ is accelerated high temperature wastage of materials that occurs when contaminants in the fuel form deposits and melt on the metal surfaces. The presence of dissolved oxygen increases the propensity for cracking. Intergranular D.

RT and ______. Polythionic D. Caustic C. improve ductility and reduce residual stresses. 400 Series SS C.342. A. Carbon steel D. Amine cracking is a form of ________ stress corrosion cracking. 235 D. Duplex SS 345. A. PT B. crack detection for caustic stress corrosion cracking is best detected by WFMT. Alkaline . Preheat C. ACFM D. To prevent hydrogen embrittlement. Oxygen D. Atomic hydrogen B. Alloys B. Although cracks may be seen visually. If wet electrodes or high moisture content flux is used. 237 B. ________ can be charged into the steel resulting in delayed cracking. All of the above 347. With ammonia stress corrosion cracking weld hardness should not exceed _______ BHN. 225 C. use lower strength steels and _________ to temper the microstructure. A. EC. H²O 346. Galvanized steel components should not be welded to ________ due to LME. All of the above 343. A. PWHT D. Hydrogen B. Hydrogen C. 218 344. MT C. A. 300 Series SS B. A.

Ammonium chloride salts are hydroscopic and readily absorb water. Proper design D. A. Large B. A. decreases C. SSC is a form of ________ stress corrosion cracking. Increases. Velocity 352. Pressure B. The major factors affecting high temperature sulfidation are the temperature. oxygen contamination _________ the corrosion rate of carbon steel and promotes accelerated corrosion and SCC of Alloy 400. With HF acid corrosion. A. Maintains D. Increases B. Proper startup 350. the H²S concentration in the sour water _________ as temperatures ________. A ________ amount of water can lead to very aggressive ammonium chloride corrosion. Increases. Decreases. Proper concentration B. Small C. Stress C. Proper D. increases B. A. Caustic C. A. at a given pressure.348. A. Proper operation C. Hydrogen B. Improper 351. decreases D. _________ of the amine system is the most effective way to prevent amine corrosion. Alloy composition D. the H²S concentration and the ________. Decreases. Decreases C. With sour water corrosion. increases . Polythionic D. the presence of hydrogen. Alkaline 349. Eliminates 353.

A. Decreasing C. Blistering. 4-6. carbon steel corrosion rates increases significantly if the flow velocity exceeds about ________m fps or at acid concentrations below _________. SSC generally occurs below about ________. HIC. 300º F C. 350º F D. A. 85% 355. 150º F 357. A. HIC and SOHIC have been found to occur between ambient and ________. Hydrogen C. 6-9. 200º F C. 80% B. Wet H²S B. 225º F B.354. SOHIC and SSC damage can occur wherever there is a ____________ environment. Low D. Aqueous 359. PWHT B. A. A. With sulfuric acid corrosion. 65% D. Cracking susceptibility increases with __________ pH and carbonate concentration. Increasing B. A. None of the above 358. 5-7. Sulfur D. 250º F B. Temperature D. Blistering. 180º F D. High . 400º F 356. 75% C. 2-3. SOHIC is driven by localized stresses so that __________ is somewhat effective in preventing SOHIC damage. Preheat C.

Hydrogen D. Yield C. Reheat cracking C. It is generally accepted that stresses approaching _________ are required for SCC to occur so that thermal stress relief is effective in preventing caustic SCC. HIC 362. A. 160º F C. Pressure C. Copper alloys B. The dewpoint of hydrochloric acid depends on the concentration of hydrogen chloride. Remains constant D. Creep range D. especially in thicker sections. 180º F B. A. Decreases B. MAWP B. Dissimilar weld metal cracking can be aggravated by _______. Cadmium and lead will cause LME on _____________. Stress relief and stabilization heat treatment of 300 Series SS for maximizing chloride SCC and PASCC resistance can cause ____________ problems. 130º F D. A. 300 Series SS C.360. Aluminum alloys D. SCC tendency ________ towards the alkaline pH region. A. A. High strength steel . Thermal cycling D. Critical 365. It is typically about _________. Cyclic stresses 361. Varies 364. Stress B. 110º F 363. Thermal fatigue B. Increases C. A.

Increasing C. Corrosion resistance B. Minimal 369. ________ injection downstream of the desalter is another common method used to reduce the amount of HCl going overhead. Chromium D. corrosion increases with __________ NH4HS concentration and __________ velocity. A. Oxygen and iron in the wash water injected into reactor effluent can lead to __________ corrosion and fouling. Turbulence D. Molybdenum C. Decreased C. With sour water corrosion. Carbon B. Increasing. Water D. A. Concentration 367. Chemical composition D. High temperature H² / H²S corrosion damage is minimized by using alloys with high _________ content. Stainless . Decreasing. Caustic 370. Susceptibility to sulfidation is determined by the _________ of the material. A. A. Tensile strength C. Decreasing. Increased B. Decreasing D. The regenerator reboiler and the regenerator are areas where the temperature and __________ of the amine stream are the highest and can cause significant corrosion problems. A. Yield strength 371. Pressure B.366. Hydrogen B. Stress C. Substantial D. A. Increasing 368. Decreasing B. Increasing. Nitrogen C.

2 ½ % C. 175º F C. H² D. In HF service. A. Around 377. 200º F 375. Upstream of B. Sulfuric .372. 160º F D. O² C. Naphthenic C. Iron sulfide D. Iron oxide 373. 1%. carbon steel operating above ________ should be closely monitored for loss in thickness and may need to be upgraded to Alloy 400. 3% B. A. H²O 374. Chloride B. A. 2% 376. A. In HF service. Fluoride C. A. carbon steel forms a protective _________ scale in dry concentrated acid. A. Adjacent to D. Downstream of C. 150º F B. The presence of _________ can destabilize the scale and turn it into a nonprotective scale. A minimum of ________ to ______ molybdenum is needed in an alloy to resist naphthenic acid corrosion. Phosphoric D. Loss of the protective scale through high velocities or turbulence will result in greatly accelerated corrosion rates. NAC may be found in hot hydrocarbon streams downstream of the crude and vacuum units. 2%. _________ acid is most often used as a catalyst in polymerization units. 2 ½ % D. H²S B. 2%. Polythionic B. __________ any hydrogen mix point. 1 ½ %.

A. 5. A. H²S C. 140º F B. O² 380. Type 304L SS is satisfactory for phosphoric acid concentration of 100% up to about _________. Water B. Hydrogen C. 6. where Chloride SCC is not likely. A. CO² D. High temperature D. 175º F 383. 7. 150º F D. Caustic . 150º F C. A. With sour water corrosion. H²O B. Phosphoric acid corrosion is usually found in ________ areas. 4. 140º F C. A. 300 Series SS can be used for sour water service at temperatures below _______. H²S D.0 B. High velocity B.5 379.378. With sulfuric acid corrosion. streams with a pH below ________ indicate the presence of a strong acid. 120º F 382.5 C. mix points with _______ cause heat to be released and high corrosion rates can occur where the acid becomes diluted.0 D. Sour water corrosion in _________ containing environments may be accompanied by carbonate SCC. 120º F B. 100º F D. Low velocity C. Low temperature 381. Type 321 is required from there to 225º F. A.

600º F. 800º F . Which of the following materials are susceptible to polythionic acid SCC? A. Moisture D. Water B. 750º F D. Eliminate 385. 300 Series SS B. Iron sulfate D. Corrosion 389. A. Stabilize D. Sulfide B. 1750º F 388. With sulfuric acid corrosion. With sulfuric acid corrosion. 1000º. alloys such as Alloy 20 resist dilute acid corrosion and form a protective ________ film on the surface. to prevent PASCC. 1000º F. All of the above 387. The “L” grade of stainless steels will sensitize if exposed more than several hours above _______ or long term above _____. 1000º F. 800º F. Alloy 600 C. Increase B. 1120º F D. Alloy 800 D. Acids C. 800º F B. 1400º F B. Iron oxide 386. 1100º F. Sensitization occurs in the _____ to _______ range. A. For furnaces. A. Chloride C. A. 1500º F C.384. the presence of oxidizers can _______ the corrosion rate. Decrease C. A. keep the firebox heated above the dewpoint to keep ________ from forming. 750º F. 600º F C. 1200º F.

Sulfide stress cracking C. None of the above 395. A. Corrosion C. A. Wet H²S 392. Residual stress B. 945 391. A. A.390. Acid concentration D. 751 B. Hydrogen stress cracking B. PWHT all carbon steel welds in accordance with API RP _____. Sulfide B. In order to minimize and prevent amine SCC. None of the above 394. Cyanides C. Temperature 393. 912 C. HCl B. All piping and equipment exposed to HF acid at any concentration with hardness levels above the recommended limit (237 BHN) are subject to _________. HIC and SOHIC damage. A. SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking resulting from the absorption of atomic hydrogen that is produced by the ______ corrosion process on the metal surface. None of the above . HF C. Hydrogen D. ________ significantly increases the probability and severity of blistering. Applied stress C. A. Carbonate SCC can occur at relatively low levels of ________ but usually occurs at welds that have not been stressed relieved. Sulfide D. Stress D. Caustic B. Hydrogen stress cracking is the same mechanism that is responsible for sulfide stress corrosion cracking in wet H²S environments except that HF acid is generating the __________. 510 D. Chloride stress cracking D.

hydrogen partial pressure. Diagonal to D. __________ is a form of damage found mostly in older vintage carbon steels and C-0. Thermal fatigue C.396. MT B. Perpendicular to 397. A. Course B. Closer to C. RT D. EC 399. HTHA is dependant on temperature. Dense D. A. however. 300 Series SS. Stress C. With high temperature hydrogen attack. HTHA D.5 Mo low alloy steels under the combined effects of deformation and aging at an intermediate temperature. Further from B. A. the carbonate cracks are usually ________ the toe of the weld and have multiple parallel cracks. HTLA 398. Tensile strength 401. Cl SCC B. Carbonate SCC may easily be mistaken for SSC or SOHIC. UT C. 5Cr. ________ using a combination of velocity ratio and backscatter have been the most successful in finding cracking. None of the above . SOHIC C. Treated 400. Yield D. Fine C. A. A. A. Spheroidization B. 9Cr and 12Cr alloys are not susceptible to ________ at conditions normally seen in refineries. Strain aging D. time and _________. Pressure B. Reheat cracking is most frequently observed in _______ grained sections of a heat-affected zone.

A vacuum tower operating at 740º F is being entered to inspect. 212º F. 212º F B. Sulfide stress corrosion cracking C. Hydrogen embrittlement B. A properly applied coating system D. 250º F C. A properly installed insulation system C. A steam actuated soot blower has condensate in the first steam exiting the soot blower. Several sets of Type 410 SS trays are bent at various angles. Which of the following may have help accelerate the corrosion? A. Steam blanketing C. A. Stress rupture 404. Creep D. 250º F 406. What type of damage mechanism would cause the cracks to form? A. flanged line carrying caustic wash water at 200º F has signs of atmospheric corrosion. 25º F. When an attempt is made to straighten them cracks form at the bends. What type of damage can be expected to be found when the furnace is brought down for maintenance and inspection? A. 300º F D. 885º F embrittlement D. Mitigation of CUI is best achieved by _________. A106 Gr B. A properly documented inspection program B. 250º F.402. Fly ash C. 175º F. The trays are removed in order to straighten them. High temperature corrosion 403. A 6”. None of the above 405. A. Sulfides B. Corrosion under insulation is more severe between ________ and ____________. Thermal fatigue B. A properly documented NDE program . Caustic D.

A 5Cr-1Mo piping system in the hydrogen unit shows significant internal wall loss after 2 years in service due to CO² corrosion. 5Cr-0. Amine stress corrosion D. White cast iron D. Which of these cast irons are not susceptible to graphitic corrosion? A. Which material would be best suited to use to install a new pipe system? A. Titanium 411. Stainless steel C. Black Cast iron C.407. What was the probable cause of the cracking? A. Titanium B. Nickel base alloys 410. 316 SS 408. Chloride stress corrosion B.5Mo B. Polythionic acid stress corrosion C. Carbon steel B. Stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking . Which of the following materials are the least susceptible to caustic embrittlement? A. 9Cr-1Mo C.5 Mo D. 300 series stainless steel heater tubes in an oil-burning furnace in the hydrocracker began to leak and the furnace was brought down. What type of material would be best suited for this service? A. 9Cr-0. None of the above 409. A carbon steel bundle from the overhead condenser in the crude unit operates at 300º F and is in hydrochloric acid service. 316 stainless steel C. 9Cr-1Mo D. A-106 Gr B D. Gray cast iron B. It showed severe pitting type corrosion when pulled for inspection.

1. A 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. D 7. D 8. D 9. E 10. B 11. A 12. C 13. E 14. B 15. B 16. A 17. B 18. E 19. E 20. C 21. B 22. A 23. D 24. C 25. A 26. C 27. A 28. B 29. B 30. A 31. C 32. A 33. B 34. C 35. C 36. D 37. B 38. B

39. D 40. C 41. B 42. A 43. B 44. B 45. B 46. C 47. C 48. C 49. D 50. B 51. C 52. D 53. A 54. B 55. C 56. C 57. A 58. D 59. D 60. C 61. B 62. B 63. A 64. A 65. C 66. B 67. A 68. C 69. B 70. C 71. A 72. C 73. C 74. B 75. C 76. C 77. D 78. B 79. C 80. C 81. B 82. A 83. B 84. B

85. A 86. D 87. C 88. D 89. B 90. D 91. A 92. D 93. B 94. B 95. C 96. C 97. B 98. A 99. C 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130.


131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176.


189. 220. 201. 199. 204. 209. 200. 202. 206. 197. 215. 184. 214. 194. 221. 185. 213. 216. 196. 181. 198. 193. 219. 186. 191. 188. 217. 218. 178. 187. 212. 207. 190. D A A B B C B A C A D A B C D C D B C C B A D B B D A C B B C B D D B D C C B C C B B A B B . 183. 203. 205. 179. 182. 195.177. 211. 180. 192. 210. 208. 222.

255. 239. 232. 238. 234. 251. 246. 259. 263. 227. 257. 260. 268. 224. 231. 264. 248.223. 253. 242. 240. 236. 230. 265. 266. 229. C A B A C C D B B B A B D B C B A C B B B D D A C A D B B B A B D C B C A D A D C D C B C B . 244. 258. 235. 226. 249. 233. 243. 261. 225. 267. 262. 250. 254. 256. 237. 245. 247. 252. 228. 241.

277. 288. 301. 284. 296. 307. 274. 291. 281. D B B C B D C D D D B D D C A D D B D D A D C C B C A B B C B C A C D B C B B B C D B C A D . 285. 295. 306. 271. 293. 273. 297. 300. 275. 278. 313. 280. 314. 279. 303. 308. 292. 309. 298. 294. 286. 289. 272. 311. 290.269. 299. 312. 270. 282. 310. 304. 287. 305. 302. 283. 276.

328. 330. 329. 323. 333. 338. 326. 352. 346. 324. 357. 345. 332. 343. 327. 348. 334. 356. 342. 319. 318. 322. 335. 349. C B A A C B A C B A C A D B B A A D B C D B C A C B B C B A B C D A B B C A D C B C A A A C . 316. 359. 351. 344. 350. 320. 325. 353. 317. 336. 347. 321. 358. 341.315. 354. 360. 339. 355. 340. 337. 331.

394. 395. 382. 385. B C A B D C B A D C C B D A C A C D C B D B A A C D B B C D C B A C A A C B A B C C A B B C . 388. 393. 396. 363. 377. 383. 399. 387. 397. 367. 392. 403. 384. 404. 401. 364. 373. 386. 389. 406. 391. 376. 374. 398. 379. 366. 400. 371. 362. 390. 368. 372.361. 378. 381. 402. 380. 365. 375. 405. 370. 369.

411.407. D C D D B . 408. 410. 409.

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